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Chlamydia infections in women

Cervicitis - chlamydia; STI - chlamydia; STD - chlamydia; Sexually transmitted - chlamydia; PID - chlamydia; Pelvic inflammatory disease - chlamydia

Chlamydia is an infection that can be passed from one person to another through sexual contact. This type of infection is known as sexually transmitted infection (STI).

Causes

Chlamydia is caused by the bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis. Both males and females may have this infection. However, they may not have symptoms. As a result, you may become infected or pass the infection to your partner without knowing it.

You are more likely to become infected with chlamydia if you have:

  • Sex without using a condom
  • Had multiple sexual partners
  • Been infected with chlamydia before

Symptoms

Most women do not have symptoms. But some have:

  • Burning when they urinate
  • Pain in the lower part of the belly, possibly with fever
  • Painful intercourse
  • Vaginal discharge or bleeding after intercourse

Exam and Tests

If you have symptoms of a chlamydia infection, your health care provider will collect a culture or perform a test called a nucleic acid amplification test.

In the past, testing required a pelvic exam by a health care provider. Today, very accurate tests can be done on urine samples. Vaginal swabs, which a woman collects herself, can also be tested. Results take 1 to 2 days to come back. Your provider may also check you for other types of STIs. Most common STIs are:

Even if you have no symptoms, you may need a chlamydia test if you:

  • Are 25 years old or younger and are sexually active (get tested every year)
  • Have a new sexual partner or more than one partner

Treatment

Chlamydia can be treated with antibiotics. Some of these are safe to take if you are pregnant. Common side effects include:

  • Nausea
  • Upset stomach
  • Diarrhea

Both you and your partner need to take the antibiotics.

  • Finish all of them, even if you feel better and still have some left.
  • All of your sexual partners should be treated. Have them take the medicines even if they do not have symptoms. This will prevent you from passing the STIs back and forth.

You and your partner are asked to abstain from sexual intercourse during the time of treatment.

Gonorrhea often occurs with chlamydia. Therefore, treatment for gonorrhea is often given at the same time.

Safe sex practices are needed to prevent becoming infected with chlamydia or spreading it to others.

Outlook (Prognosis)

Antibiotic treatment almost always works. You and your partner should take the medicines as directed.

If chlamydia spreads into your uterus and fallopian tubes, it can cause scarring. Scarring can make it harder for you to get pregnant. You can help prevent this by:

  • Finishing your antibiotics when you are treated
  • Making sure your sexual partners also take antibiotics
  • Talking to your provider about being tested for chlamydia and seeing your provider if you have symptoms
  • Wearing condoms and practicing safe sex

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Make an appointment with your provider if:

  • You have symptoms of chlamydia
  • You are worried that you might have chlamydia

References

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Chlamydial infections in adolescents and adults. www.cdc.gov/std/tg2015/chlamydia.htm. Updated June 4, 2015. Accessed May 4, 2018.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Recommendations for laboratory-based detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, 2014. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2014;63(RR-02):1-19. PMID: 24622331. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24622331.

Geisler WM. Diagnosis and management of uncomplicated chlamydia trachomatis infections in adolescents and adults: summary of evidence reviewed for the 2015 centers for disease control and prevention sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines. Clin Infect Dis. 2015;(61):774-784. PMID: 26602617 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26602617.

Geisler WM. Diseases caused by chlamydiae. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 318.

LeFevre ML; US Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for chlamydia and gonorrhea: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2014;161(12):902-910. PMID: 25243785.www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25243785.

Workowski KA, Bolan GA; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines. 2015. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2015;64(RR-03):1-137. PMID: 26042815. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26042815.

    • Female reproductive anatomy

      Female reproductive anatomy - illustration

      External structures of the female reproductive anatomy include the labium minora and majora, the vagina and the clitoris. Internal structures include the uterus, ovaries, and cervix.

      Female reproductive anatomy

      illustration

    • Uterus

      Uterus - illustration

      The uterus is a hollow muscular organ located in the female pelvis between the bladder and rectum. The ovaries produce the eggs that travel through the fallopian tubes. Once the egg has left the ovary it can be fertilized and implant itself in the lining of the uterus. The main function of the uterus is to nourish the developing fetus prior to birth.

      Uterus

      illustration

    • Antibodies

      Antibodies - illustration

      Antigens are large molecules (usually proteins) on the surface of cells, viruses, fungi, bacteria, and some non-living substances such as toxins, chemicals, drugs, and foreign particles. The immune system recognizes antigens and produces antibodies that destroy substances containing antigens.

      Antibodies

      illustration

      • Female reproductive anatomy

        Female reproductive anatomy - illustration

        External structures of the female reproductive anatomy include the labium minora and majora, the vagina and the clitoris. Internal structures include the uterus, ovaries, and cervix.

        Female reproductive anatomy

        illustration

      • Uterus

        Uterus - illustration

        The uterus is a hollow muscular organ located in the female pelvis between the bladder and rectum. The ovaries produce the eggs that travel through the fallopian tubes. Once the egg has left the ovary it can be fertilized and implant itself in the lining of the uterus. The main function of the uterus is to nourish the developing fetus prior to birth.

        Uterus

        illustration

      • Antibodies

        Antibodies - illustration

        Antigens are large molecules (usually proteins) on the surface of cells, viruses, fungi, bacteria, and some non-living substances such as toxins, chemicals, drugs, and foreign particles. The immune system recognizes antigens and produces antibodies that destroy substances containing antigens.

        Antibodies

        illustration

      A Closer Look

       

      Self Care

       

      Review Date: 4/19/2018

      Reviewed By: John D. Jacobson, MD, Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda Center for Fertility, Loma Linda, CA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

      The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., a business unit of Ebix, Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
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