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Hormonal effects in newborns

Newborn breast swelling; Physiologic leukorrhea

Hormonal effects in newborns occur because in the womb, babies are exposed to many chemicals (hormones) that are in the mother's bloodstream. After birth, the infants are no longer exposed to these hormones. This exposure may cause temporary conditions in a newborn.

Information

Hormones from the mother (maternal hormones) are some of the chemicals that pass through the placenta into the baby's blood during pregnancy. These hormones can affect the baby.

For example, pregnant women produce high levels of the hormone estrogen. This causes breast enlargement in the mother. By the third day after birth, breast swelling may also be seen in newborn boys and girls. Such newborn breast swelling does not last, but it is a common concern among new parents.

The breast swelling should go away by the second week after birth as the hormones leave the newborn's body. DO NOT squeeze or massage the newborn's breasts because this can cause an infection under the skin (abscess).

Hormones from the mother may also cause some fluid to leak from the infant's nipples. This is called witch's milk. It is common and most often goes away within 2 weeks.

Newborn girls may also have temporary changes in the vaginal area.

  • The skin tissue around the vaginal area, called the labia, may look puffy as a result of estrogen exposure.
  • There may be a white fluid (discharge) from the vagina. This is called physiologic leukorrhea.
  • There may also be a small amount of bleeding from the vagina.

These changes are common and should slowly go away over the first 2 months of life.

References

Gevers EF, Fischer DA, Dattani MT. Fetal and neonatal endocrinology. In: Jameson JL, De Groot LJ, de Kretser DM, et al, eds. Endocrinology: Adult and Pediatric. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 145.

Sucato GS, Murray PJ. Pediatric and adolescent gynecology. In: Zitelli BJ, McIntire SC, Nowalk AJ, eds. Zitelli and Davis' Atlas of Pediatric Physical Diagnosis. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 19.

    • Hormonal effects in newborns

      Hormonal effects in newborns - illustration

      Under the influence of maternal hormones during pregnancy a newborn may exhibit signs of hormone exposure after birth, such as enlarged breasts. In addition to the breast enlargement, there may be some discharge from the nipples. This too is common and should be of no concern, disappearing within 2 weeks. The discharge is called witch's milk.

      Hormonal effects in newborns

      illustration

      • Hormonal effects in newborns

        Hormonal effects in newborns - illustration

        Under the influence of maternal hormones during pregnancy a newborn may exhibit signs of hormone exposure after birth, such as enlarged breasts. In addition to the breast enlargement, there may be some discharge from the nipples. This too is common and should be of no concern, disappearing within 2 weeks. The discharge is called witch's milk.

        Hormonal effects in newborns

        illustration

      Review Date: 3/6/2019

      Reviewed By: Neil K. Kaneshiro, MD, MHA, Clinical Professor of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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