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Teething

Eruption of primary teeth; Well child care - teething

Teething is the growth of teeth through the gums in the mouth of infants and young children.

Information

Teething usually begins when a baby is between 6 and 8 months old. All 20 baby teeth should be in place by the time a child is 30 months old. Some children do not show any teeth until much later than 8 months, but this is usually normal.

  • The two bottom front teeth (lower incisors) usually come in first.
  • Next to grow in are usually the two top front teeth (upper incisors).
  • Then the other incisors, lower and upper molars, canines, and finally the upper and lower lateral molars come in.

The signs of teething are:

  • Acting cranky or irritable
  • Biting or chewing on hard objects
  • Drooling, which may often begin before teething starts
  • Gum swelling and tenderness
  • Refusing food
  • Sleeping problems

Teething does NOT cause fever or diarrhea. If your child develops a fever or diarrhea and you are worried about it, talk to your health care provider.

Tips to ease your child's teething discomfort:

  • Wipe your baby's face with a cloth to remove the drool and prevent a rash.
  • Give your infant a cool object to chew on, such as a firm rubber teething ring or a cold apple. Avoid liquid-filled teething rings, or any plastic objects that might break.
  • Gently rub the gums with a cool, wet washcloth, or (until the teeth are right near the surface) a clean finger. You may place the wet washcloth in the freezer first, but wash it before using it again.
  • Feed your child cool, soft foods such as applesauce or yogurt (if your baby is eating solids).
  • Use a bottle, if it seems to help, but only fill it with water. Formula, milk, or juice can all cause tooth decay.

You can buy the following medicines and remedies at the drug store:

  • Acetaminophen (Tylenol and others) or ibuprofen can help when your baby is very cranky or uncomfortable.
  • If your child is 2 years or older, teething gels and preparations rubbed on the gums may help the pain for a short while. Be careful not to use too much. DO NOT use these remedies if your child is younger than 2 years old.

Be sure to read and follow package instructions before using any medicine or remedy. If you are not sure how to use it, call your child's provider.

What not to do:

  • Do not tie a teething ring or any other object around your child's neck.
  • Do not place anything frozen against your child's gums.
  • Never cut the gums to help a tooth grow in, because this can lead to infection.
  • Avoid teething powders.
  • Never give your child aspirin or place it against the gums or teeth.
  • Do not rub alcohol on your baby's gums.
  • Do not use homeopathic remedies. They may contain ingredients that are not safe for infants. 

References

American Academy of Pediatrics website. Teething: 4 to 7 months. www.healthychildren.org/English/ages-stages/baby/teething-tooth-care/Pages/Teething-4-to-7-Months.aspx. Updated October 6, 2016. Accessed November 20, 2018.

American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry. Clinical Affairs Committee - Infant Oral Health Subcommittee. Guidelines on infant oral health care. Pediatr Dent. 2012;34(5):e148-e152. PMID: 23211901 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23211901.

Dean JA, Turner EG. Eruption of the teeth: local, systemic, and congenital factors that influence the process. In: Dean JA, ed. McDonald and Avery's Dentistry for the Child and Adolescent. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 19.

    • Tooth anatomy

      Tooth anatomy - illustration

      The structure of the tooth includes dentin, pulp and other tissues, blood vessels and nerves imbedded in the bony jaw. Above the gum line, the tooth is protected by the hard enamel covering.

      Tooth anatomy

      illustration

    • Development of baby teeth

      Development of baby teeth - illustration

      Both baby teeth (deciduous or milk teeth) and permanent teeth have fairly well-defined times of eruption. The ages listed are the normal ages that a baby tooth emerges. Upper central incisors and upper lateral incisors erupt by 8 to 10 months. Upper canines (cuspids) erupt by 16 to 20 months. Upper first molars erupt by 15 to 21 months. Upper second molars erupt by 20 to 24 months. Lower central incisors erupt by 6 to 9 months. Lower lateral incisors erupt by 15 to 21 months. Lower canines (cuspids) erupt by 15 to 21 months. Lower first molars erupt by 15 to 21 months. Lower second molars erupt by 20 to 24 months.

      Development of baby teeth

      illustration

    • Teething symptoms

      Teething symptoms - illustration

      Children typically begin to erupt a tooth between the 6th and 8th month of life. Signs of teething are: drooling, irritability, gum swelling and sensitivity, sleeping problems, refusing food, the urge to bite on hard objects and possibly a low grade fever. The discomfort that results from teething is due to the pressure exerted on the tissue in the mouth, called the periodontal membrane, as the teeth erupt.

      Teething symptoms

      illustration

      • Tooth anatomy

        Tooth anatomy - illustration

        The structure of the tooth includes dentin, pulp and other tissues, blood vessels and nerves imbedded in the bony jaw. Above the gum line, the tooth is protected by the hard enamel covering.

        Tooth anatomy

        illustration

      • Development of baby teeth

        Development of baby teeth - illustration

        Both baby teeth (deciduous or milk teeth) and permanent teeth have fairly well-defined times of eruption. The ages listed are the normal ages that a baby tooth emerges. Upper central incisors and upper lateral incisors erupt by 8 to 10 months. Upper canines (cuspids) erupt by 16 to 20 months. Upper first molars erupt by 15 to 21 months. Upper second molars erupt by 20 to 24 months. Lower central incisors erupt by 6 to 9 months. Lower lateral incisors erupt by 15 to 21 months. Lower canines (cuspids) erupt by 15 to 21 months. Lower first molars erupt by 15 to 21 months. Lower second molars erupt by 20 to 24 months.

        Development of baby teeth

        illustration

      • Teething symptoms

        Teething symptoms - illustration

        Children typically begin to erupt a tooth between the 6th and 8th month of life. Signs of teething are: drooling, irritability, gum swelling and sensitivity, sleeping problems, refusing food, the urge to bite on hard objects and possibly a low grade fever. The discomfort that results from teething is due to the pressure exerted on the tissue in the mouth, called the periodontal membrane, as the teeth erupt.

        Teething symptoms

        illustration

      Review Date: 10/11/2018

      Reviewed By: Neil K. Kaneshiro, MD, MHA, Clinical Professor of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

      The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., a business unit of Ebix, Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
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