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Urine output - decreased

Oliguria

Decreased urine output means that you produce less urine than normal. Most adults make at least 500 mL of urine in 24 hours (a little over 2 cups).

Causes

Common causes include:

  • Dehydration from not drinking enough fluids and having vomiting, diarrhea, or fever
  • Total urinary tract blockage, such as from an enlarged prostate
  • Medicines such as anticholinergics, diuretics, and some antibiotics

Less common causes include:

  • Blood loss
  • Severe infection or other medical condition that leads to shock

Home Care

Drink the amount of fluid your health care provider recommends.

Your provider may tell you to measure the amount of urine you produce.

When to Contact a Medical Professional

A large decrease in urine output may be a sign of a serious condition. In some cases, it can be life threatening. Most of the time, urine output can be restored with prompt medical care.

Contact your provider if:

  • You notice that you are producing less urine than usual.
  • Your urine looks much darker than usual.
  • You are vomiting, have diarrhea, or have a high fever and cannot get enough fluids by mouth.
  • You have dizziness, lightheadedness, or a fast pulse with decreased urine ouput.

What to Expect at Your Office Visit

Your provider will perform a physical exam and ask questions such as:

  • When did the problem start and has it changed over time?
  • How much do you drink each day and how much urine do you produce?
  • Have you noticed any change in urine color?
  • What makes the problem worse? Better?
  • Have you had vomiting, diarrhea, fever, or other symptoms of illness?
  • What medicines do you take?
  • Do you have a history of kidney or bladder problems?

Tests that may be done include:

References

Emmett M, Fenves AV, Schwartz JC. Approach to the patient with kidney disease. In: Skorecki K, Chertow GM, Marsden PA, Taal MW, Yu ASL, eds. Brenner and Rector's The Kidney. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 25.

Molitoris BA. Acute kidney injury. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 120.

Riley RS, McPherson RA. Basic examination of urine. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 23rd ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017:chap 28.

    • Female urinary tract

      Female urinary tract - illustration

      The female and male urinary tracts are relatively the same except for the length of the urethra.

      Female urinary tract

      illustration

    • Male urinary tract

      Male urinary tract - illustration

      The male and female urinary tracts are relatively the same except for the length of the urethra.

      Male urinary tract

      illustration

      • Female urinary tract

        Female urinary tract - illustration

        The female and male urinary tracts are relatively the same except for the length of the urethra.

        Female urinary tract

        illustration

      • Male urinary tract

        Male urinary tract - illustration

        The male and female urinary tracts are relatively the same except for the length of the urethra.

        Male urinary tract

        illustration

      Review Date: 8/26/2017

      Reviewed By: Jennifer Sobol, DO, Urologist with the Michigan Institute of Urology, West Bloomfield, MI. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

      The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., a business unit of Ebix, Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
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