Digital rectal examDRE
A digital rectal exam is an examination of the lower rectum. The health care provider uses a gloved, lubricated finger to check for any abnormal findings.
How the Test is Performed
The provider will first look at the outside of the anus for hemorrhoids or fissures. Then the provider will put on a glove and insert a lubricated finger into the rectum. In women, this exam may be done at the same time as a pelvic exam.
Hemorrhoids are swollen veins in the anus or lower part of the rectum.
How to Prepare for the Test
For the test, the provider will ask you to:
- Try to relax
- Take a deep breath during the insertion of the finger into your rectum
How the Test will Feel
You may feel mild discomfort during this test.
Why the Test is Performed
This test is performed for many reasons. It may be done:
- As part of a routine yearly physical exam in both men and women
- When your provider suspects you are bleeding somewhere in your digestive tract
- When men are having symptoms that suggest the prostate is enlarged or you may have a prostate infection
In men, the test can be used to check the size of the prostate and to look for abnormal bumps or other changes of the prostate gland.
A digital rectal exam may be done to collect stool for testing for fecal occult (hidden) blood as part of screening for cancer of the rectum or colon.
Fecal occult (hidden) blood
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A normal finding means the provider did not detect any problem during the exam. However, this test does not rule out all problems.
What Abnormal Results Mean
An abnormal result may be due to:
- A prostate problem, such as an enlarged prostate gland, prostate infection, or prostate cancer
Enlarged prostate gland
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- Bleeding anywhere in the digestive tract
- Cancer of the rectum or colon
- Small split or tear in the thin moist tissue lining of the anus (called anal fissure)
- An abscess, when pus collects in the area of the anus and rectum
- Hemorrhoids, swollen veins in the anus or lower part of the rectum
Abdelnaby A, Downs MJ. Diseases of the anorectum. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 129.
Coates WC. Anorectal procedures. In: Roberts JR, Custalow CB, Thomsen TW, eds. Roberts and Hedges' Clinical Procedures in Emergency Medicine and Acute Care. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2019:chap 45.
Loeb S, Eastham JA. Diagnosis and staging of prostate cancer. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, Partin AW, Peters CA, eds. Campbell-Walsh Urology. 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 111.
Prostate cancer - illustration
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men in the United States. Prostate cancer forms in the prostate gland, and can sometimes be felt on digital rectal examination. This is one of the purposes of the digital rectal exam.
Review Date: 9/16/2019
Reviewed By: Linda J. Vorvick, MD, Clinical Associate Professor, Department of Family Medicine, UW Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.