OA cannot be cured, but OA symptoms can be controlled. OA will most likely get worse over time though the pace with which this occurs varies from person to person.
You can have surgery, but other treatments can improve your pain and make your life much better. Although these treatments cannot make the OA go away, they can often delay surgery or make your symptoms mild enough to not cause significant problems.
Over-the-counter (OTC) pain relievers, such as acetaminophen (Tylenol) or a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) can help with OA symptoms. You can buy these medicines without a prescription.
It is recommended that you do not take more than 3 grams (3,000 mg) of acetaminophen a day. If you have liver disease, talk with your provider before taking acetaminophen. OTC NSAIDs include aspirin, ibuprofen, and naproxen. Several other NSAIDs are available by prescription. Talk with your provider before taking an NSAID on a regular basis.
Duloxetine (Cymbalta) is a prescription medicine that can also help treat long-term (chronic) pain related to OA.
Injections of steroid medicines often provide significant short to medium-term benefit from the pain of OA.
Supplements that you may use include:
- Pills, such as glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate
- Capsaicin skin cream to relieve pain
Staying active and getting exercise can maintain joint and overall movement. Ask your provider to recommend an exercise routine or refer you to a physical therapist. Water exercises, such as swimming, are often helpful.
Other lifestyle tips include:
- Applying heat or cold to the joint
- Eating healthy foods
- Getting enough rest
- Losing weight if you are overweight
- Protecting your joints from injury
If the pain from OA gets worse, keeping up with activities may become more difficult or painful. Making changes around the home can help take stress off your joints to relieve some of the pain. If your work is causing stress in certain joints, you may need to adjust your work area or change work tasks.
Physical therapy can help improve muscle strength and the motion of stiff joints as well as your balance. If therapy does not make you feel better after 6 to 12 weeks, then it likely will not be helpful.
Massage therapy may provide short-term pain relief, but does not change the underlying OA process. Make sure you work with a licensed massage therapist who is experienced in working on sensitive joints.
Splints and braces may help support weakened joints. Some types limit or prevent the joint from moving. Others may shift pressure off one portion of a joint. Use a brace only when your doctor or therapist recommends one. Using a brace the wrong way can cause joint damage, stiffness, and pain.
Acupuncture is a traditional Chinese treatment. It is thought that when acupuncture needles stimulate certain points on the body, chemicals that block pain are released. Acupuncture may provide significant pain relief for OA.
Yoga and Tai chi have also shown significant benefit in treating the pain from OA.
S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe, pronounced "Sammy") is a manmade form of a natural chemical in the body. It may help reduce joint inflammation and pain.
Severe cases of OA might need surgery to replace or repair damaged joints. Options include: