Blood pressure is a measurement of the force exerted against the walls of your arteries as your heart pumps blood to your body. Hypertension is the term used to describe high blood pressure.
Untreated high blood pressure can lead to many medical problems. These include heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, eye problems, and other health issues.
Blood pressure readings are given as two numbers. The top number is called systolic blood pressure. The bottom number is called diastolic blood pressure. For example, 120 over 80 (written as 120/80 mm Hg).
One or both of these numbers can be too high. (Note: These numbers apply to people who are not taking medicines for blood pressure and who are not ill.)
Normal blood pressure is when your blood pressure is lower than 120/80 mm Hg most of the time.
High blood pressure (hypertension) is when one or both of your blood pressure readings are higher than 130/80 mm Hg most of the time.
If the top blood pressure number is between 120 and 130 mm Hg, and the bottom blood pressure number is less than 80 mm Hg, it is called elevated blood pressure.
If you have heart or kidney problems, or you had a stroke, your doctor may want your blood pressure to be even lower than that of people who do not have these conditions.
Many factors can affect blood pressure, including:
The amount of water and salt you have in your body
The condition of your kidneys, nervous system, or blood vessels
Your hormone levels
You are more likely to be told your blood pressure is too high as you get older. This is because your blood vessels become stiffer as you age. When that happens, your blood pressure goes up. High blood pressure increases your chance of having a stroke, heart attack, heart failure, kidney disease, or early death.
You have a higher risk of high blood pressure if you:
Are African American
Are often stressed or anxious
Drink too much alcohol (more than 1 drink per day for women and more than 2 drinks per day for men)
All adults over the age of 18 should have their blood pressure checked every year. More frequent measurement may be needed for those with a history of high blood pressure readings or those with risk factors for high blood pressure.
Blood pressure readings taken at home may be a better measure of your current blood pressure than those taken at your provider's office.
Make sure you get a good quality, well-fitting home blood pressure monitor. It should have a properly-sized cuff and a digital readout.
Home blood pressure monitor
Your health care provider may ask you to keep track of your blood pressure at home. To do this, you will need to get a home blood pressure monitor. ...
The goal of treatment is to reduce your blood pressure so that you have a lower risk of health problems caused by high blood pressure. You and your provider should set a blood pressure goal for you.
Whenever thinking about the best treatment for high blood pressure, you and your provider must consider other factors such as:
The medicines you take
Your risk of side effects from possible medications
Other medical conditions you may have, such as a history of heart disease, stroke, kidney problems, or diabetes
If your blood pressure is between 120/80 and 130/80 mm Hg, you have elevated blood pressure.
Your provider will recommend lifestyle changes to bring your blood pressure down to a normal range.
Medicines are rarely used at this stage.
If your blood pressure is higher than 130/80, but lower than 140/90 mm Hg, you have Stage 1 high blood pressure. When thinking about the best treatment, you and your provider must consider:
If you have no other diseases or risk factors, your provider may recommend lifestyle changes and repeat the measurements after a few months.
If your blood pressure remains above 130/80, but lower than 140/90 mm Hg, your provider may recommend medicines to treat high blood pressure.
If you have other diseases or risk factors, your provider may be more likely to start medicines at the same time as lifestyle changes.
If your blood pressure is higher than 140/90 mm Hg, you have Stage 2 high blood pressure. Your provider will most likely start you on medicines and recommend lifestyle changes.
Before making a final diagnosis of either elevated blood pressure or high blood pressure, your provider should ask you to have your blood pressure measured at home, at your pharmacy, or somewhere else besides their office or a hospital.
You can do many things to help control your blood pressure, including:
Your provider can help you find programs for losing weight, stopping smoking, and exercising.
You can also get a referral to a dietitian, who can help you plan a diet that is healthy for you.
How low your blood pressure should be and at what level you need to start treatment is individualized, based on your age and any medical problems you have.
MEDICINES FOR HYPERTENSION
Most of the time, your provider will try lifestyle changes first, and check your blood pressure two or more times. Medicines will likely be started if your blood pressure readings remain at or above these levels:
Top number (systolic pressure) of 130 or more
Bottom number (diastolic pressure) of 80 or more
If you have diabetes, heart problems, or a history of a stroke, medicines may be started at lower blood pressure reading. The most commonly used blood pressure targets for people with these medical problems are below 120 to 130/80 mm Hg.
If you have high blood pressure, you will have regular checkups with your provider.
Even if you have not been diagnosed with high blood pressure, it is important to have your blood pressure checked during your regular check-up, especially if someone in your family has or had high blood pressure.
Call your provider right away if home monitoring shows that your blood pressure is still high.
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Michael A. Chen, MD, PhD, Associate Professor of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Harborview Medical Center, University of Washington Medical School, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.